BR regionally located; Sykes- Pico: russia – north Iran Brit s Iran Fr – Iraq but taken by Br with Palestine, Jordan (cont land to Indian colonies)
Fr left with Syria Lebanon.Russia believe Br cant take Iran alone, Arabs hope for break away ottomans SA/palestine/iraq/iranian muslim empire
So all these plans were thwarted by realities of regional nationality, geog and economics – sides drawn from the powerful west, for oil deals. lawrence Arabia the arab/br race to damascus taking jerusalem…then the Br sabotage arab functioning state (water etc) meanwhile fr invade lebanon into syria 1920, planes tanks v cavalry, Iraq rebels v br br bombs bagdad planes (1st time ever)Lloyd George
Faisal loses kingdom syria – brits buy him with kingdom iraq
thus two fake states Iraq and Syria, iraq as a name invented by br
turkey created with persian kurds; buffer russia in caucus, kurds divdied into 3 states iran iraq syria (turkey), thus stopped from uniting, also why create Lebanon? Divide and rule borders.
backdrop – ghndi Irish Egypt rebel against br empire, communicating campaigns, within cairo unrest coptic christians develop ideal of pan arabism, United arab reps, secular and socialist, by 1920 br hand regional control to
ww2 france falls fast, Vichy rule means syria is technically a Nazi ally. Br invades Syria blodily, and they supress the news from reaching home of this agression. Iraq rebels. to quell issues liberal indep promises emerge to lebanon and syria. 1946 indep syria, dem elections and hope, multicultural and affluent region; but cia get involved and assassinate elected president in 1949. This breaks down cohesion between sides and 20 years of political unrest follow, with little recourse to dem principle. Syrian gov request egyptian annexe in 1958 worried in case of communist incursion, Nassar creates United Arab Republic lasts to 1961 (meanwhile suez and israeli egypt war?) because of Nassar misrule, but they are interested in pan arab state – Yemen and Sudan had joined egypt and syria between these years.
War plan red sentiment; and anti pan arabism were arguably USA’s main strategies before fighting communism after 1950 and the weakening of the Truman doctrine. As a result the Americans and Russians funded the communist movements across the region and especially in Iraq, to keep British influence to a minimum, and stop socialist pan arabism (this also follows why USA supported Israel when brit supported palestine. and no support came for suez, with NATO keeping European issues focussed on division)
In Iraq the socialists controlled a shaky deal with the communists; thus they either want unity in an arab rep or soviet, and retake kuwait taken from the region by br in 1900, (1958). So eisenhower invades Lebanon under humanitarian lies of deescalating an impending civil war. This serves to stop their entity in the pan arab state and divide territory with a beach head and prove that willing to act in Iraq/Egypt/Syria. Iraq was told if they take KUwait then the US will use nuclear war. see pan arab flag states today. Gossum was assassinated by the CIA as a result in 63(they put him there); thus Iraq spends a period of over ten years without stability on government and paves the way for Saddam Hussein.
1970 syria stabilizes, but:
Israel – created 48 by UN by dividing regions of Palestine into 8. giving the central 3 regions to the Jewish settlers )already there recreating Judea) with Jerusalem as UN administered city. BUT PAlestine was to be secular for the three religions to live together, hypocritical because the JEwish state is anomalous. war ensues in the region and the Israeli state takes much more territory than originally pledged, 72percent. There is a natural balance between Israeli policy and the US anti pan arab policy, with Britain out of their way finally, after Nassar, Suez, the failed palestinian mandate, loss of control in Syria Lebanon, and Iraq, (Jordan and Iran? Yemen, Aden? Kuwait? Afghanistan?)(NOrth African influences? MOrocco Libya and tunisia) (Arab Spring therefore is in line with the anti us arab unification policy, but also favors replacing embedded rulers of Syria and Libya, (Kingdoms of Jordan and Saud, failure of Shah)
Gossum Iraq (reiterated the cause to united arabs (Egypt Sudan Syria Iraq and Yemen all have the UAR flag)
(Dr Roy Casagranda
Br navy switch to oil power